Scientific Research -purpose



When we refer to scientific research and Art, we like to refer to Art therapy. Art ages like your body.

Can it be delayed or stopped ?
Can we prevent darkening of varnish ?
What do we learn from the observed behavior of components ?

What are the alternatives now, and in the future ?

Can we care, protect and cure Art, the way we care about ourselves ?
What are the alternative non invasive treatments in cleaning and restoration ?

Can we rely on nano particle based cleaning agents that are now further developed ?
Can they only remove the surface coatings without interacting with the paint media ?


ACTION

Modeling, mapping and analysis of stored data with reliable analytical tools (cartographies of elements).

PROCESS

Classify
Concentrate
Observe & assess variables
Spot key consistent factors
Create combinations
Explore various combinations
Mix in an interconnected system

TARGET

•   To achieve a more complete understanding of numerous, diverse & disparate data.

•   To look for consistent factors, classifying data using all observed variables

•   To create combinations

•   To explore and interact with complementary dimensional / spatial, referenced data as an interconnected system.

RESULT

All combined in a matrix for reliable analysis.


PAINTING THERAPY CHALLENGE

  Clean and restore frail paintings

  Mends supports and restore their plasticity

 Increase pigment’s stability and cohesion

  Consolidate bindings

  Reconstruct original components & mixtures layer by layer

  Restore original intended colors

  Restore original transparency & opacity

  Increase resistance to light

  Strengthen invariability & permanence

  Slow down ageing

 Clone masterpieces.



TREATMENT ASSESSMENT


Careful differential diagnosis involves first making a list of possible diagnoses, then attempting to remove diagnoses from the list until at most one diagnosis remains viable.

Removing diagnoses from the list is done by making tests that should provide different results, depending on which diagnosis is correct.

•   One test is not enough to identify additives: There are more than ten different additives in acrylic paints.

•   The paints often used by artists in modern Art are :

- Acrylic paints
- Nitro cellulose
- Vinyl emulsions

•   The treatments have to be assessed in terms of impact, interaction, and change.

•   Enters here, the notion of a ripple effect of a treatment applied to Art :
due to the interactions of the inner components who will differ according to the various additives used -  this issue is key for modern paintings as well as contemporary paintings

•   Therefore how many alternative treatments corresponding to various paints/additives combinations… can there be and with what consequences?

Are dry cleaning treatments adequate? or should aqueous foams be used?




WHAT DATA DOES A SCIENTIFIC REPORT REVEAL ?

1. Visual blemishes, such as black spots, discoloration, efflorescence (surface deposits of metal soaps) & crusts, with topography and degree of ageing of the paint layers.

2. The depth of the cracks (natural or artificially induced) presence of microscopic system of cracks (microcissings) the nature of the detected pigments, binders, glues, additives varnishes with their spatial distribution and intensity.

The chemical alteration of drying oil binders.

The compatibility with the presumed datation and technique of the artist.


3. Past restorations, over paints, under drawings. the components and mixtures used by the artist. Whether a layer is original or should be removed.

1.Analysis is conducted with existing techniques


Mono chromators to isolate portions of light
Carbon 14
Infrared spectrometers to  measure the wavelength and the intensity of the absorption of infrared light by Art


2.New techniques in development include laser techniques


Diagnosis of the layers provide accurate data and authentication before the stage of research and treatment.
as well as


XR crystallography
3D images of molecular activity
XR spectro-holography
X-Ray diffraction instruments to measure the Crystal structure, The Grain size, the Texture, or residual stress of materials  and compounds through the interaction of the  X-ray beam with a sample of the work of Art.

3. Development of technologies that anticipate the ageing process of Art and provide:

• a better understanding and treatment of complex chemical compositions,
• natural variation of contents and their alteration ,
• To provide non destructive alternatives.



The removal of aged and deteriorated molecular over layers from the surface of paintings is a delicate, and irreversible process.

Complication encountered

the multitude of different components present within a painted work of art (ultrathin layers or traces), as well as the sensitivity of the original surface to environmental conditions such as heat, light often increased when we are in presence of inorganic pigments as in modern paintings.

Lasers enable

1 - high control and accuracy (wavelength, energy density and pulse duration)
2 - material (component or area of cleaning) selectivity
3 - immediate data feedback

Inorganic pigments feature higher thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity than the constituents materials of the binder, or than the organic pigments.


The laser interacts with the pigment and the binder and causes changes.



The target of new technologies is to understand and treat the complex chemical composition of any type of work, the natural variation of contents and their alteration, to provide non destructive alternatives.

New Technologies involving Nanoscale materials are an increasingly active area of research

because properties in these size regimes are often fundamentally different from those of ordinary materials.

Nanoscale materials show properties that can be controlled at submicrometer

(10–6 m) or nanometer (10–9 m) level.


These advanced materials are:

•   Smart i.e.
- can change shape in response to stress,
- can swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature

•    Multi-functional (combining several functions)

•    Environmentally compatible or survivable
- are structural materials that can strengthen when used through temperature- or stress-induced phase changes.

So far Nano technology is confined to small scale field tests but research is oriented towards
new materials such as thin films and blends with several unique:

•    Properties
•    Functions and
•    Tuning capabilities

With the use of :

•    super sticky materials applied to conservation of Art
•    Improving solvents of various quality
•    Varnishes of all kinds to protect Art from colour migration and fading and increase resistance to humidity exposure and external pressures.

Specialized properties will include Research in various fields:

•    Mechanical
•    Interfacial
•    Thermal
•    Magnetic, transport , and
•    Response to external stimuli

In order to develop surfaces that respond to their environnement.

These surfaces will cure Art while being invisible to the eye.